In Western Asia, Iraq borders Syria and Jordan to the west, Turkey to the north, Saudi Arabia to the south, Iran to the east, and the Persian Gulf and Kuwait to the southeast. Iraq’s formal economy is dominated by the oil sector, with the agriculture, tourism, and services sectors gaining ground in recent years.
Saddam Hussein’s role in Iraq
During his rule of Iraq, Saddam Hussein fostered a mythology that portrayed him as a courageous modernizer and influential leader. He was also known for using fear to maintain power. He was known for his use of extensive secret police.
He ruled with an iron fist for almost three decades. He was responsible for some of the most devastating wars in Iraq’s history. His repressive regime killed thousands and forced tens of thousands of people into prison.
Saddam Hussein’s sons, Uday and Qusay, became the most wanted men in Iraq after their father. Their death in a gun battle with American forces in Mosul in 2003 was one of the most publicized events in the Iraqi regime’s history.
In the mid-1990s, Saddam Hussein squashed Shi’ite rebellions against the Iraqi government. He was also responsible for killing thousands of Iraqi Shia and Kurds.
The oil sector dominates the formal economy.
During the 1990s, the formal economy of Iraq was dominated by the oil sector. Oil revenues accounted for 85 percent of the government budget and four out of five of Iraq’s exports. In addition, the industrial sector was a primary beneficiary of government subsidies.
In the late 1980s, Iraq experimented with privatization. It had a large middle class and a well-developed transport system. It had a relatively good educational system. The country had a large industrial base.
By 1989, 99 percent of the agricultural land was privately owned. The land was leased to private investors on favourable terms—the government-owned half of the farmland used for agriculture.
Smuggling networks operated in the border areas. Lower-level connections were based on tribe or kinship. These networks tied Iraq to its neighbouring countries and tied Iraq to the global economy.
The Iraqi diaspora
During the Iraq War, large numbers of Iraqis left the country. They moved to several significant states in the United States and Europe. They are also found in Persian Gulf states. The Iraqi diaspora is a vast community that has grown exponentially during political conflict and radical transitions. Mainly comprising Muslims, the diaspora has included Armenians, Assyrians, Jews, and Yazidis.
The diaspora has been shaped by various factors, including religious, ethnic, and class factors. However, the post-9/11 “war on terror” has influenced the Iraqi diaspora’s strategy and identity. This study explores the dynamics of diasporic transnationalism. It draws on interviews conducted in Stockholm and London. It examines the constraints to diasporic coordination and highlights opportunities for coordination in the diaspora.
Lost Mesopotamian archaeology in the Baghdad Museum
During the invasion of Iraq in 2003, the National Museum of Iraq was severely damaged. Many of the artifacts from the collection were taken, and the museum was left unprotected.
Some stolen items included a black, headless statue of the Sumerian King Antenna. Other artifacts included the Harp of Ur, a 4,600-year-old stringed instrument. The head of a marble statue of Apollo and the Sacred Vase of Warka was also stolen.
Other artifacts included a lion head from the Tell Harmal site and a boat model from the Ubaid site. A cuneiform calendar from the Nimrud site was damaged on the bottom tier. Other artifacts include a statue of the Sumerian Scribe and the Stone Statue of Sumerian Worshiper.
In addition, there were some tablets and papyrus fragments that mention Irisagrig, a lost ancient city. These were seized at the Jordanian border in 2003.
Popular Iraqi dishes
Known for its variety of foods, Iraqi cuisine is rich in taste. It uses spices and vegetables in its recipes. Several meat dishes are also included in the menu. The cuisine is influenced mainly by Persian and Turkish food.
A typical Iraqi meal includes several types of rice and expensive meat. Darshana, a rice dish, is cooked during the Holy Month of Ramadan. This is a popular breakfast dish in many Arab countries. Other words include pasta, a meat dish.
Masgouf, a fish dish is also a popular Iraqi dish. It is cooked vertically on a fire. It is usually served with salmon bread. It can also be found at fast food restaurants.
The cuisine of Iraq has been known to use several spices, such as cinnamon, za’atar, and harissa. It is also served with a variety of sauces and salads.